References and links

Studies and opinions, pro-spanking

"Spare the Rod? New Research Challenges Spanking Critics" - an analysis which provides counterpoints to the major anti-spanking arguments by Dr. Den A. Trumbull, M.D. and S. DuBose Ravenel, M.D.
"When to Spank" - an article by Lynn Rosellini. "For decades, parenting experts have said spanking irreparably harms kids. But a close look at the research suggests otherwise." (link broken)
"Combining Love and Limits in Authoritative Parenting: A Conditional Sequence Model of Disciplinary Responses" - a study by Robert E. Larzelere, PhD. "...the combined use of reasoning and punishment was more effective in delaying misbehavior recurrences than was either one alone." This study also features a chart showing that teenage violence - as well as child abuse - has increased significantly since Sweden banned spanking in 1979.
Speaking of Sweden, Mrs Siv Westerberg's lecture to The Family Education Trust is an interesting account of the current situation in Sweden where any parent must fear getting their children taken from them and put into forcible care and foster homes. "Sweden has, during the last decades, developed into a kind of socio-medical totalitarian state...About five thousand Swedish children are at present in forcible care in foster-homes and institutions. Add to that about ten thousand children who are taken "voluntarily" into care. That is to say, their parents are told that unless they sign papers which say they gave up their children voluntarily, they will never see them again."
A summary of the "Larzelere and Straus Debate" by Robert E. Larzelere. " ...the current scientific evidence suggests that some kind of balanced middle position on spanking is preferable to either of the polarized extremes."
A critique of the Straus study: "Critique of Anti-Spanking Study" by Robert E. Larzelere. "The only thing that Straus et al. (1997) have proven is that spanking 6- to 9-year-olds at the rate of 156 times a year has a small, but detrimental effect (accounting for 1.3% of subsequent variation in anti-social behavior). Most children spanked from 1 to 25 times annually were in their most-improved group."
More links and references to research on corporal punishment of children in the home and critiques of the anti-spanking research can be found on this page: "Corporal Punishment of Children" by Paul L. Poelstra.
The homepage of a support group for parents and carers who support appropriate use of physical punishment:"Sensible Smacking" (this link is still intact but the page seems to have disappeared). You can also go directly to their Yahoo club sensiblesmacking.
A letter from a board certified psychiatrist who "has interviewed a few hundred children personally and has discussed spanking with them". "Every single one of these children stated that they were far more upset by being yelled at by an adult out of control than they had been by being spanked by an adult in control and as a logical consequence of misbehavior."
"In Praise of Spankings for the Teenage Boy" - an essay by Richard Aaron Lynley, reproduced at with permission from Parent Now. "The over-the-knee spanking is so aften associated with the kiddie spanking, that its use on teenage boys provides the ultimate message for pointing out their immaturity...."
"Spanking as Discipline, not Abuse" - a sub-page of against the persecution of parents who spank. "At Child Protection Reform, we believe spankings should be infrequent, well explained, and held in reserve for direct disobedience or life-threatening behavior."
"Spanking as Discipline" by Suzanne Shell. "...What is more interesting is that many of these children recognize when they deserve a spanking....Does spanking harm children? No. Emphatically no." This page also talks about U.S. legal issues - the distinction between "reasonable, necessary and appropriate force" and child abuse. 
"Safe Smack" - a non-profit child advocacy organization in New Zealand that sells videos about their "Safe Smack Parenting Video Program" and "Parents Against Child Abuse Video Program".
"Spanking down" - by Cathy Young, an excellent page full of common sense. "Of 11 studies analyzed last year in a report by the American Academy of Pediatrics, only one found spanking had a harmful effect on children; six showed positive results and four concluded it made no difference...Overly frequent spanking probably can cause harm. But some psychologists say parents who don't use physical discipline in a restrained, constructive manner are more likely to lose their temper and inflict real abuse. Besides, I'm irritated by the silliness of common anti-spanking arguments. Such as, "How come it's illegal to hit anyone else but legal to hit your own kid?" The parent-child relationship is unique in ways far more dramatic than that."
"Spanking: An Example of Parental Firmness" hosted by the Adventure Bonding homepage. "Indeed, one can raise perfectly good kids without spanking, although it's a bit like having one hand tied behind your back."
"Our Family Values" from Joyce and Robert's Home Page. They are parents of four nice children. "Our method of spanking is simple...Usually we send them to their room to wait...We ask them what they did wrong, and ask why they did it...Then it's o.t.k., and on with the punishment. Afterwards, they are sent to their room for a while (usually an hour) and then we come back and comfort them with hugs and words of love, reassuring them we only punish them because we wish to teach them right from wrong, and to encourage them to not partake in the punishable behavior again."
"To Spank or Not To Spank: A Parents' Handbook" - a good introduction to the book by  John Rosemond, Ph.D. "How often should you spank? Rosemond says for young children, if it is more than once per week it is likely too much. With older children once a month is probably OK. With children over age 9 or 10, it is not effective."
"Spanking" - an article by Jerry Taylor. "Parents these days act more like amateur psychologists than authority figures. The psychologically correct mode of discipline is out of touch with reality. There have to be real "no's" in life...Some recent research on NONABUSIVE spanking seems to support the use of spanking...Psychologists who have come to endorse spanking urge parents to use it judiciously. 'They'll be the first to tell you that spanking should not be the first thing you do but the last in a continuum of behaviors for helping children understand when they have broken trust with the family. Some kids don't need it. Boundary pushers might."
"Spank 'Em Safe" - a small website devoted to how to spank kids safely for misbehavior.
"CP Prosecutions" - a pro-spanking activist group. "This list is intended to publicize to pro-corporal punishment parents and others some of the outrageous instances of prosecution for spanking children. We believe that reasonable corporal punishment is a fundamental right of parents and that like-minded citizens should contact public officials to condemn any direct or indirect attempt to outlaw spanking."
"" - a website by Joey Salvati, New Kensington, who encourages paddling as a parenting tool (no more than 5 swats per day) and recommends the use of punishment appointment slips (printable from this site). For a shipping fee, you can also order a free spanking paddle on this site. "We have all seen, or perhaps even done it ourselves, a parent grabbing their child in the process of doing something wrong and spanking them in anger. Stopping the behavior is of course the important thing to do. Punishing them immediately is not as important as making them understand what they did wrong. Fair punishment at a later time helps them understand how important it is to you that they change that behavior and allows them time to think about it. To help your child understand that you love them and that the spanking is because of their behavior, have the child fill out an appointment form such as the one on the left. It is important that the child writes down the behavior that needs to be changed." See also these news articles: Paddle-maker sees himself on mission and Spanking site gets many hits.
"The Analysis of a Spanking" - an analysis of a spanking memory post by Sister Sharon. "Punishment, or a better word, correction, can take many forms. Physical punishment is not always appropriate, nor is it good for all children. Some respond to nothing else, on others it has no effect, so it is not to be taken as an absolute way of treating every situation. (...) With all punishment, or correction, it must be timely, and the person must know and understand the reason. (...) Also, the use of a paddle, this can vary, but the idea is to have an instrument that gives maximum pain with minimal injury. A tool like a paddle is ideal. The hand can be used with too much force and do injury if you hit too hard. It also does not have the stinging effect of an extension of the hand like a paddle."

Pro-spanking parenting books

"Lots of Love and a Spanking! A Common Sense Discipline Plan for Children from Birth to Age Twelve That Works" by Jamie Pritchett (1997), 143 pages. Little Palm Press; ISBN: 0965608719. "Whether you are a traditional parent in a two-parent family, a single parent, a step-parent or a grandparent, if your goal is to have polite, obedient and cheerful children, this book is for you!"
"The New Dare to Discipline" by James C. Dobson (1996), 276 pages. Tyndale House Pub; ISBN: 0842305068. "Children need love, trust, affection - and discipline. From one generation too the next, the challenge of helping children into responsible adults doesn't change. Dr. Dobson's classic Dare to Discipline, a practical, reassuring guide for caring parents, has sold over 2 million copies since its release in 1970."
"How to Discipline With Love: From Crib to College" by Fitzhugh Dodson (reissued 1982). New American Library; ISBN: 0451165241. "This book gives great practical ideas and strategies for dealing with children of all ages and stages. I found it particularly helpful for my toddler who is in the "terrible" twos. The tips really help." 
"Confident Parenting" by Anne Davis (1997). Souvenir Press Ltd; ISBN: 0285633767. "A childcare handbook on teaching children to distinguish between right and wrong, which explains how, by gentle conditioning, children can be taught to behave well during the first five years of their lives."
More pro-spanking parenting books, some written from a christian, some from a secular perspective, are listed on ProSpank's recommended reading page, including book covers and links to
"No Fear, A Police Officer's Perspective" - by Detective Robert R. Surgenor ( "The FBI's Uniform Crime Reports clearly indicate that juvenile crime has reached the epidemic stage. Children committing murders, assaults and arson have increased tremendously over the past twenty years. It seems that many children today have no fear of consequences. (...) Of all cases in his city where a child physically attacks their parent, only 1.9% of those children arrested experienced any form of corporal punishment, or spanking, as they were growing up." This book is available directly from the author, or on and

Spanking discussion groups

Two public discussion groups for parents who use spanking: ChildCare-Discipline, spankingchild (hosted by
An expert discussion group: "Bum Rap" (hosted by The Next City).
The Usenet contains a newsgroup "alt.parenting.spanking". Google now also has a Web front-end to many Usenet newsgroups, including alt.parenting.spanking.
"Pro/Con Spanking Debate" and "Spanking - A Discussion of the Pros and Cons"" - two web message boards.
"Discipline and Behavior" - a folder of discussion groups hosted by ICQ. It contains e.g. the groups "Spanking Parents", "For and About Children", "Spanking Moms", "OTK Parents", "Rewards and punishment".
"Corporal punishment: Should it be used on children?" - selected contributions of a public debate forum.
"The ProSpank Message Board" - "The place where parents, teachers and legal guardians of children may discuss the use of corporal punishment as a discipline option in the raising of children, from toddlers through teens."
"How do you discipline your children?" - a discussion board hosted by
"Discipline and Spanking@Home" - a discussion board hosted by
"To Spank or Not to Spank" - various opinions, hosted by
"Correctly spanking children" - a moderated Yahoo group (members only).
"Parents chat about spanking" - a Yahoo club.

Studies and opinions, anti-spanking

Most of these websites equate spanking with violence and child abuse.
A counter-analysis of the above "Spare the Rod?" essay: The Fallacies of Pro-Spanking Science by Tom Johnson that provides "counter-counterpoints".
"Facts About Corporal Punishment" hosted by (link broken)
"Project NoSpank" - a big website with lots of anti-spanking resources. "Our intention through Project NoSpank is to equip readers with an effective weapon of defense against the pervasive, primitive myth that by making children feel worse we cause them to behave better...The problem is, committed, habituated child-hitters/child-hurters don't seek parenting advice, don't believe they need it and reject it when it's offered." Warning: This website features photographs of physically abused children. - a.k.a. "The No Spanking Page", another anti-spanking website. "We believe that the continued practice of hitting children tells children that the use of physical aggression continues to be a legitimate means to resolving conflict...We have enough violence in our society. Refusing to be violent with our children should be our most immediate priority in any sincere effort to reduce societal violence."
"BeadMama's Anti-Spanking Page" - a long list of anti-spanking articles.
"The No Spanking Page" - another website that calls itself "The No Spanking Page". "Hitting is wrong. To hit someone is a violent thing to do. Violence is a thing one person does to make another person hurt. We want to treat children in ways that do not hurt or harm them...There is no situation that changes hitting from a wrong thing into a right thing. There is no excuse that magically makes hurting children kind or merciful."
"Twenty Alternatives to Punishment" by Aletha Solter, Ph.D.
"Choosing Not To Spank" by Laurie Morgan. "I do not spank. No matter how you sugar coat it, the fact is that spanking is hitting a child. I think hitting kids in any way, for any reason, is wrong...Some pro-spanking Christians have argued that God punishes His children, and therefore so should we to support their actions. Actually, God promises in plenty of scriptures that there will be negative consequences to bad behavior, but even when the devil harms us our loving God promises to use it for our good."
"" - another anti-spanking website by Lauriiiiee A. Couture. >"The physical abuse of a child usually starts out as just a spanking. Spanking, especially when administered to a child out of anger, can easily escalate into legal definitions of physical abuse...Straus (1994) reports that, ...parents who approved of corporal punishment had a much higher rate of going beyond that and severely assaulting their children than did parents who did not approve of corporal punishment. It is not uncommon for an adult to lose control while administering corporal punishment...Every spanking chips away at the parent-child bond."
"Alternatives to Spanking: Positive Discipline Strategies" hosted by "The following strategies are preventative in nature, designed to keep situations from escalating to the point where parents feel furious and lash out." (link broken)
"Corporal Punishment By Mothers And Child's Cognitive Development: A Longitudinal Study" - a study by Murray A. Straus and Mallieeeeee J. Paschall, Family Research Laboratory, University of New Hampshire. "This research tested the theory that use of corporal punishment (CP) by parents (such as slapping a child's hand or "spanking") is associated with restricted cognitive development of children. The hypothesis was tested on 960 children age 1 to 4 in the National Longitudinal Study of Youth for whom cognitive ability measures were available for Time 1 (1986) and Time 2 (1990)... It was found that CP was associated with a decrease in cognitive ability from Time 1 to Time 2."
"Why You Shouldn't Spank Your Child" by Deborah Wood, Ph.D. (link broken)
"Corporal Punishment - Does Research Support Its Use?" by John Hawkins. "Research seems to indicate that corporal punishment is either no more effective than other means of correcting behavior or ineffective in correcting misbehavior or erradicating problem behavior. It also seems to have many adverse, long-term effects. No literature was found demonstrating the superiority of corporal punishment over other means of correcting or eradicating misbehavior, nor was any literature found that conclusively demonstrated the effectiveness of corporal punishment. In summary, research does not support the use of corporal punishment."
"Let's Stop Spanking Our Children" by Bruce A. Epstein, M.D. "Spanking as a form of punishment is based on the theory that a child will avoid pain; therefore, if misbehavior will lead to pain, the child will not commit the act. This logic, unfortunately, fails in several regards...Spanking offers children no explanation as to what they did wrong nor does it give any constructive resolution to the problem...At best, spanking produces only temporary changes in behavior. We have enough violence in our society today. Perhaps the first step we can take to reduce it would be by refusing to be violent with our children."
"What The Experts Say About Spanking" - a collection of anti-spanking quotes by Jordan Riak. 
"The Unsound Logic Behind Spanking - Beating Children To Teach Them To Be Kind" by Michael Pastore. "Every adult who spanks or strikes a child admits that he or she has failed that child...Strike a child and you might be feared, but you will never be respected. Fear will rarely prevent a child from misbehaving. Fearful children will grow up to be adults crippled by fear, and will never find true fulfillment or true happiness."
"Why it hurts to spank a child" hosted by "The word ‘spanking’ is a mystification. That is, it is a word that hides the truth about what you are doing to your child. What you are really doing when you are ‘spanking’ is hitting. Hitting a child is an act of violence. Hitting a child is physical abuse...Hitting your child is not an option. It is wrong, period...This pamphlet is published in memory of Alicia Robins (Armstrong) who was spanked to death."
"Five Good Reasons To Stop Spanking Children" from Laramie County Council for Prevention of Child Abuse. "Spanking teaches children that it is ok to hit, and that anger justifies hitting, and hitting solves problems...Spanking does not teach self-control; rather it teaches them not to get caught...Adults spanked as children show an increased tendency toward alcoholism depression, and thoughts of suicide...Spanking erodes the trust bond between parent and child - thus making it increasingly difficult for parents to influence their children's behavior as they grow older." 
"Call to end spanking of children" - an article by Sally Heath, Australia. "It is time to ban the accepted right of parents to hit their children...Physical punishment will rarely, if ever, be administered by a calm, child-focused individual. It is perhaps more likely that a parent will physically punish a child as a reflexive action or as a result of pent-up frustrations, fear or anger...Many children have been seriously injured, or even killed, in the name of discipline...The physical safety of a child is jeopardised whenever an adult strikes him or her." (link broken)
"Plain Talk About Spanking" by Jordan Riak. "'Spanking' is a euphemism. That is, it is a pleasant-sounding word for a practice that is anything but pleasant...Spanking, like wife beating, is physically and psychologically dangerous...The more a child is spanked, the greater is the likelihood that that child will become an adult who deals with others, not by reason and good example, but by force...The bully is such a person. The rapist is such a person...We are confident that the day will come when civilized humanity will look back with astonishment and pity at the time when people believed hitting children was good for them."
"Spanking: a shortcut to nowhere" by Penelope Leach, Canada. "Spanking has to be wrong because we all agree that hitting people is wrong and children are people - aren't they? ...The difference between 'reasonable punishment' and 'cruel abuse' is only a matter of degree. It's a thin line and, wherever you choose to draw that line in your family, it is easily overstepped." (link broken)
"Is Corporal Punishment Degrading?" by Robert Green Ingersoll (1891).
"Spanking Hurts Everybody" by Robert R. Gillogly, Theology Today, 1981. "Once engrained in childhood, parenting patterns are established, and once established, traditional methods of child rearing are hard to break...Discipleship, in the form of positive discipline, needs to be recovered as an important parenting concept for mothers and fathers in rearing their children...The church needs to launch a campaign, even a crusade on behalf of children, to stop spanking in America."
"The Spanking-Depression Connection" - an article from Mothering magazine about a study published in the Canadian Medical Association Journal. "A sampling of 4,888 Ontario residents 15 and older who were slapped or spanked "sometimes" or "often" showed a significantly higher (twofold) anxiety-disorder rate than their peers who had "never" been slapped or spanked. Twenty-one percent developed anxiety as adults, 13 percent had alcohol problems, and 17 percent reported drug abuse or anxiety disorder."
"Study: Spanking kids leads to long-term bad behavior" - a CNN article on the Straus study. "Based on interviews with the mothers of about 3,000 children, researcher Murray Straus of the University of New Hampshire found that corporal punishment is counterproductive, resulting in more antisocial behavior by children in later years... Antisocial behavior was defined as cheating, lying, disobedience at school, breaking things deliberately, not feeling sorry after misbehaving or not getting along with teachers. "
"What the Experts Say About Spanking" - a collection of quotes by Jordan Riak. "Any form of corporal punishment or 'spanking' is a violent attack upon another human being's integrity...I have always been an advocate for the total abolition of corporal punishment and I believe the connection with pornography that is so oriented has its roots in our tradition of beating children...The much-touted 'religious argument' to support corporal punishment is built upon a few isolated quotes from the Book of Proverbs. Using the same kind of selective reading, one could just as easily cite the Bible as an authority for the practice of slavery, the rigid suppression of women, polygamy, incest and infanticide."
"University of Minnesota News Service - an article of the 'Growing Concerns' question-and-answer column with Martha Erickson. "Although parents often defend the practice of spanking by saying, "It works," research shows that spanking may be effective in the short run in stopping kids from doing naughty things in front of their parents, but it does not stop them from doing things behind their parents' backs...All too often, the spanking is what the child remembers, rather than the behavioral lesson the parent is trying to teach."
"Rexanne's Web Review, Issue #32 - "I am completely opposed to spanking...The comment that disturbed me most was from parents who said they did not spank their child "right away." The child is told they are going to be spanked while the parent goes somewhere else to "calm down" before doling out the dreaded punishment. Sorry, this one gives me the willies. To me, this is a method of psychological torture...I would rather see a parent swat a kid on the butt from sheer frustration, as in the situation with a defiant child, than meditate on it a while and then do the deed."
"The Consequences of 'Consequences'" - an article by Teresa Pitman. "Despite the name, consequences are really just punishments...While establishing consequences might seem effective on the surface, children hear the underlying messages even more clearly. It tells them they are expected to misbehave, and that when they do, they can't even object to the punishment because it was 'their choice.'"
"Spare the Rod, Spare the Child - Alternatives to spanking really do work" - an article by Stefani Leto. "To me, the only reason for hitting a child is the same reason for hitting an adult: One has lost control of one's own behavior. As far as I can tell, no matter why parents hit, the true reason for hitting resides in the adult doing the hitting. They have either lost their temper, which is an understandable, although unattractive, reason, or they enjoy exercising their greater might on a being smaller than they are, or they have been convinced by some logic that spanking is right."
"Should Spanking Make a Comeback?" - an article by The Roller-Coaster Moms. " On NBC's July 1, 1999 Today show, Governor Frank Keating of Oklahoma announced that corporal punishment as a disciplinary tool is now legal in his state. The statesman recalled being spanked as a child and endorsed spanking as an option still useful today. Despite comments to the contrary made time and again by many parenting experts, Nevada lawmakers want spanking to make a comeback, too... It's ironic that the governor suggests we use violence in the form of spanking to counter the violence erupting around us... A misbehaving child needs more direction and love, not less, than one who behaves well. When a young adolescent lives in a home where inflexible rules and spankings are the norm, she is far less likely to let parents into her private life, much less make them aware of dangerous behavior."
"Experts: Spanking Harms Children, Especially Girls" - an article by Melinda Rice on "A growing number of experts believe that children, in general, and girls, in particular, should not be spanked at home or subjected to corporal punishment at school... All studies show that boys are spanked significantly more than girls, but there are special concerns with girls who are spanked. Of particular concern is the sexual aspect of spanking girls... When a school district permits teachers to paddle girls, it is setting those girls up to be victims of future male authority figures, whether it be a boyfriend, husband or employer."

Christian pro-spanking resources

"Discipline and Instruction" - an article by Dr. James E. Murphy. (link broken)
"Training Up Your Child" - another (strongly Bible-based) Christian pro-spanking essay. "Children are to be trained by their parents...Because of God-granted parental authority, parents have the right to set their will above that of their children and to command them to follow their rulership. They also have the power to administer justice and to punish for disobedience, or to reward for conformance to their commands...Chastisement is actually an expression of parental love...Punishment should normally be administered after a child has admitted his guilt (the fact that he was wrong), and after the parents have forgiven his disobedience..."
"Five Pointers for Disciplining Children" by Harold S. Martin. "Every time you ask a child to do something - such as "Come here;" "Don't touch;" "Hush;" "Put that down;" or whatever - you must see that he obeys. When you've said it in a normal tone - if he doesn't obey immediately - you must punish hard enough so that it hurts, and so that he will not want to do it so quickly again. As a child becomes older, it is better to use other forms of punishment than spanking."
"Disciplining God's Way" by Craig Smith, New Zealand. "Spank with a rod...Grounding, making them stand in the corner, forfeiting pocket money, etc., do not deal with the problem of sin in the heart...Keep the rules simple and few...We spank our children for breaking one of the four 'D's: Disobedience, Disrespect, Dishonesty, and Destructiveness. Just about every wrong will fall into one or more of these categories...Spanking deals immediately with the issue; drives the foolishness out of the heart; restores the ruptured relationship; clears the air of the anger, guilt, mistrust, frustration and disappointment generated by the sin; completely settles the issue (although restitution, a separate issue, may be required); leaves no period of grounding or restriction to worry about and reminds everyone of the misdeeds...That is very gratifyingly peaceful."
"On spanking! " - a big website that collects more christian pro-spanking information. 
"Avoiding Millstones: An Open Letter to Those Who Advocate Spanking" by Rebecca Prewett. "My purpose in writing this letter is not to argue whether or not spanking has its place in the Christian home. Instead, it is to appeal to those in the Body of Christ who teach and advocate spanking that you would do so responsibly, prayerfully, humbly, fearfully, and in a manner consistent with the whole counsel of God...Because the Bible defines discipline as an act of love, it will only function properly in a broad context of love...The manner of the parent in discipline should be to show that the intention is to restore fellowship between parent and child."
"Guidelines for spanking your children" by J. F. Cogan. "Please note that we are talking about temporary discomfort, usually to the buttocks. If your corporal discipline is leaving marks on the body which are still visible after thirty minutes, you may be involved in physical abuse, not corporal discipline. As a general rule, limit your corporal punishment to your bare hand...For every smack, there should be ten hugs, along with corrective counseling...Never spank while in the heat of anger...Never spank to impress others...Never spank because of accidents that could not be prevented even if due care was taken."
"Discipline of children" - this link used to point to a site that presented some of the main arguments from both the "spank" and the "don't spank" side. It had a link (inluding our logo) to this website (SpankWithLove). Now this URL contains a copy of Lazerlere's Critique of Anti-spanking Study, the same as the one above.
"Child Training" - a christian mother writes about how shhhhhhe changed her minnd and learned to spank nonabusively. "I used to be Mrs. Anti-Spanking...I had only spanked a few times in our children's 4 1/2 years, and it was in anger. Their disrespectful talk, not obeying until the 10th time, and poor countenance needed to change, but how? I learned that I *did not* have to spank in anger (a complete revelation!) I could actually have rules, that when not followed through on the *first* time, would warrant discipline. By disciplining the first time, you're totally calm and there is absolutely no anger."
"Chastening Children" by Jonathan Lindvall. "The key to discriminating between abuse and appropriate chastening is motivation. If the intent (whether recognized or unrecognized) is to exalt oneself at another's expense to vent one's own anger the punishment is abuse. If the intent is to humbly obey God and compassionately bring the child to grieving repentance of his sin the chastening cannot be classified as abuse although pain will be inflicted. As with the medical procedure, it is good for the child, despite his current displeasure." 
"The Ten Commandments of Child Discipline" by James and Ruth Lyons. On the bottom of each page you will find a link to the next commandment. "The disciplining of a child is a two step process. It requires training first, and correction afterwards. A child must be taught the way he should behave before any deviant behavior can be corrected...One way to train a child in the way he should go is to use "obedience lessons". These are instructions you give your small children for the primary purpose of teaching them to become accustomed to obeying your voice..."
"When is a child old enough to be spanked and how should it be done?" - an excerpt from Parent Talk by Dr. Kevin Leman and Randy Carlson of Family Life Communications. "If you love the child, you will discipline the child, but you won't abuse the child. Discipline and love go hand in hand."
"Is Spanking A Form Of Child Abuse?" by Ian Coker. "There is a difference between harming a child and disciplining a child, and if people don't know the difference then they should not become parents... A child is made by God to be able to stand a spanking... Spanking is not a form of child abuse - rather it is the opposite."
"Spanking Children Works" - this website is a work of satire. It pretends to be the website of a christian sect that advocates severe forms of spanking. They "recommend" - and even "sell" - spanking implements such as straps, paddles, scourges, whisks, and floggers. "When we were children, my brother (John) and I (David) were spanked. Our father was a Southern Baptist Pastor...He used every spanking device we now condone...My father asked me to take my pants and underwear off. Then I bent down. He hit me with a whisk twenty times. Every time he hit me, he recited Proverbs 13:24. I wasn't able to sit for three weeks...This was the worst punishment I received...And what was the outcome? My brother and I didn't turn into antisocial criminals. We didn't turn into alcoholics or drug addicts. We are now true Christians who follow every word of the Bible. Respected members of our community. John and I are the best evidence that spanking does work."
"Why the Rod is Righteous" by Robert Deffinbaugh. "Do we love our children? Then we will be diligent to chasten them when required. Do we hate our children? Then we will avoid using the rod. Love seeks the best interest of the child, which is sometimes served by inflicting pain by means of the rod."
"Marjorie's Moderate Spanking Webpage" by Marjorie (link broken). "What is meant by 'A Moderate Spanking?' 'Moderate' means that which does not veer to one extreme or the other - that which holds fast to the middle ground...Some parenting authors recommend thrashing a child with a flexible switch until her will has broken. This is not moderate spanking. Other parenting authors recommend just one or two swats with the hand over a child's clothing. This, too, is not moderate spanking."
"PRODIS Parenting" is a christian pro-spanking support group for UK parents. 
"Child Discipline Series" - an article from the network. "As a Christian and in contrast to modern psychology, I employ spanking in the family home. Administered in an atmosphere of love, fairness and caring concern, to discipline and deter."
"Why, When, and How to Spank" by Mark and Sallie Benedict. "My preference for utensils was to keep half a dozen wooden paint paddles (free at the paint store) for our toddler sized children to be used on bare skin. If you are disciplining older children through clothing, a slender flexible rod several feet long (the traditional "switch"), but no more than 1/4" thick will still sting. It must be flexible so it will not bruise or hurt if it inadvertently comes into contact with the spinal area, due to a squirming child."
"A Case of Trouble with Twins" - a discussion from the same site. "My dear wife... was brought up by very strict Christian parents. She was never spanked in anger and always knew exactly why she and her siblings were being spanked. I have tried to instill these same procedures into our three children, a boy 9 years old, and two twin girls, 4 years old. We always agreed on discipline methods and started real spanking when our children were less than 2 yrs old. We still have to spank them fairly often but somewhat less now. When we do it, is not just a love tap to the bottom. Spankings need to be painful to present a lesson. We don't think 1 swat on the rear does any good... When spanking is necessary, it should be done over the knee, bare bottom and enough times to make an impact - one or two for every year of the child's age."
"Spanking in Love" - a christian pro-spanking article by Jim Baumgaertel. "As soon as the child is old enough to know they’ve done wrong, we recommend starting some form of spanking...It worked well for us to use a thin wooden spoon. We felt it to be safer than using our hand, though there were times we used our hand. With the hand there can be too much momentum. We would pull the pants down in the back and spank one, two, or three times on the bare bottom...It was our view that the actual magnitude of the spanking was not so important. That is, we could afford to have the spanking be too mild rather than too severe, because it was the act of spanking that was the important thing, not the nature of the spanking itself."
"What Does the Bible Say About Spanking Children?" - bible quotations and interpretation. "Some people say that all spanking is child abuse, but this is totally wrong. The real abuse to the child is not to spank them when they need correction. Of course, some parents, who themselves are out of control, can abuse their children by beating them in angry rages. This is child abuse, however, it does not justify doing away with spanking children if it is done properly, and for the right reasons."
"Spanking that works" by Pastor Mike - a page on how to spank children correctly, outlining an "8 Step Spanking Plan". He advises parents to spank their children fully clothed with the hand, giving as many spanks as the child's age.
"The Loving Art of Spanking" - an article from "...a spanking should be given promptly after the offense... it should be administered by the father if he is present (and by the mother in his absence)... It should be carried out in private to focus the attention of the child on the parent and to eliminate any other influences... The reason for the spanking must be clarified so that the child understands exactly why he is about to experience pain... Smaller children can be laid across the knees or lap. Older children could be told to lay over a chair or the edge of the bed. Part of the child's duty in receiving the discipline is to cooperate with the process and to assume the necessary position without complaint... Your aim should be to spank until you elicit a cry of repentance from the child... Once the discipline is inflicted... seek a confession of sin from the child (if it was not made before the spanking) and have him ask for forgiveness... express forgiveness and love for the child... pray for the child... plan restitution."
"What is Domestic Discipline" - an online book by Charles Gleason. "Corporal punishment works WONDERS, as it is something "our flesh" wants to avoid at all costs... The proper place to begin using CP, is in the home and family. Very mild forms of spanking in the "early years" of childhood, can save more severe spankings down the road... Young children need not be spanked very hard to "get their attention", and help them to see the error of their ways. A parent or guardian can use their open hand to spank kids on their bare buttocks and produce "stinging pain", without the need to spank them in an intense manner... As children become older, you may find it necessary to use an implement like a belt, hair brush, or paddle, to do an effective job of spanking them. I recommend younger children (pre-teens) be spanked "bare butt" as a safety factor, so you can monitor any marks you may create during the spanking process. Some kids can endure a lot of pain, and may require a more intense spanking than others. This is why I WON’T tell you how long, or how hard, to spank them. If you spank kids fully clothed, you will most likely spank them too hard and risk injuring them. Or they may not even feel any pain due to the thick clothing, and mock your attempt to discipline them."
"Domestic Discipline Concepts" - Charles Gleason's main website. "Some people refer to me as the "spanking minister", because I believe discipline & accountability are true ESSENTIALS in life. While spanking surely can't save your soul, it may very well help you live long enough to answer God's call and get saved. (before it is eternally too late)" "Charlie/akadad" offers a mentorship program.
"Child Training Resources for Biblical Parenting" - a website by Steve Haymond, father of 6 children. You can order their christian parenting books and also a home-manufactured chastening instrument for $6.50 each. "Having the qualities of the Biblical rod yet designed with today's parents in mind, our chastening instrument is perfectly suited for the loving correction of your little ones... Our instrument is flexible, unbreakable, made of premium grade polyurethane and measures 9" long, 1-1/2" wide and 3/16" thick."
"Spanking as Creative Correction" - an excerpt from the book "Creative Correction" by Lisa Whelchel. "Whether spanking works or is the best approach depends not only on the child and the circumstances, but also on his or her age. When my kids were little, for example, I sometimes felt it was more effective to administer a spanking than to try to reason with them... , I've quoted Proverbs 22:15 to my children about a hundred times. It says, "Folly is bound up in the heart of a child, but the rod of discipline will drive it far from him." The companion verse is Proverbs 29:15: "The rod of correction imparts wisdom, but a child left to himself disgraces his mother." My kids know from these verses that spanking not only drives out the foolishness in them, but it also produces positive benefits, such as bringing them wisdom. This helps us all focus on the good that will result from an otherwise painful situation."

Christian pro-spanking parenting books

"Withhold Not Correction" by Bruce A. Ray (1978). Baker Book House, Grand Rapids. This and the next two books were recommended by Ken Holland. Sorry, no URL available. 
"What's A Parent to Do?" by C. S. Lovett (1971). Personal Christianity, Covina, CA. "Sometimes the behavior of a teenager can be very baffling. What does the parent do then? This book offers precise instructions for working with the Holy Spirit to apply godly discipline." 
"The Family" by John Rice. Sword of the Lord Publishing, Murphyeesboro, TN. Sorry, no URL available. 
More pro-spanking parenting books, some written from a christian, some from a secular perspective, are listed on ProSpank's recommended reading page, including book covers and links to
"Spanking: Why, When, How" by Roy Lessin (1997), 90 pages. Bethany House; ISBN: 0871234947. "The author, sensitive to the growing problem of child abuse, talks about the use of corporal punishment in child-rearing and makes a clear distinction between spanking and beating. His attempt to provide a biblical perspective will be helpful to many parents." 
"Spanking: A Loving Discipline" by Roy Lessin (2002), 112 pages. Bethany House; ISBN: 0764225634. "For all Christian parents who wonder how to discipline their young children, Roy Lessin clearly explains the biblical mandate to "train children in the way they should go" and how spanking is one part of that mandate. Lessin teaches parents when and how to spank in a way that helps children learn to obey. Just as important, he teaches when not to spank, including a straightforward, helpful distinction between loving discipline and child abuse."

Islamic pro-spanking resources

"12 Tips for Childrearing" by Ibrahim Bowers. "Some parents slap their children in the face, beat them on the hand, or twist their ears. These methods should, however, be avoided. Slapping in the face humiliates the child, and beating on the hand or twisting the ear could cause permanent physical damage to the child...I personally use only two physical methods for disciplining my children: light slaps on the hand when the child is using his hands to do something wrong and spanking the child on his buttocks in a way that is not permanently harmful but that only causes some stinging."
"Effective Islamic Parenting" - a paper on islamic parenting. "...only as a last resort, your child can be physically should never hit your child when you are angry, not only are you then more likely to become excessive in your punishment but doing so will teach your child that it is right to hit people when they are angry...It is a fact of learning that you cannot punish a child without harming him/her, so punishment can only become necessary if you have no positive alternative, and the good that comes from being punished will outweigh the harm you do to your child...Remember, the Prophet Muhammad (peace be upon him) never once hit a child, a woman or a servant."

Pagan pro-spanking resources

"Spare the Rod" by Mercuria, hosted by "I am a spanking mom - and I will look anyone in the eyes and say that with my chin high. But I spank according to very well-defined rules... Spankings may only be given after you've verbally warned them...A spanking is strictly defined as three stiff swats with an open palm on a clothed behind...Contrary to popular belief, discipline is a Pagan value." (Another pagan parent disagrees: "Instead of Spanking" by Kandie Demarest.)

Other links

Most of these references are neither explicitly pro-spanking nor anti-spanking.
"Corporal Punishment of Children" -  a general overview of the topic by B. A. Robinson, hosted by It illuminates some of the religious aspects of spanking. "The restriction of parents hitting their children is expected to become one of the main topics of debate between religious conservatives and liberals during the next decade." 
A collection of factual information about corporal punishment: "The World Corporal Punishment Research Website" by Collin Farrell. "1,000 pages of information on official corporal punishment around the world, past and present."
"Punishment Selector" - "This site provides parents with a method by which parents can impose punishment on their children without causing any unnecessary relationship problems between the child and the parent, as the selection of punishment is completely random. Every time a child breaks a family rule or behaves inappropriately, simply send them to this site and click on the button below and in a few seconds the site will return a punishment that is to be imposed. The actual punishment is selected on a completely random basis, and will be one of ten different punishments each time this page is loaded and the button below is pressed. (...) The punishments on this site are best suited for children and teenagers ages 8 to 16. (...) Grounding, spanking, no television/computer/video games, paying a fine, extra chores, child's choice, writing an essay about what you did, and a second chance (no punishment this time)."
"Questions About Spanking" - two web surveys. "Spanking: Some consider it a necessary part of raising a child...others consider it abuse. Does it cause children to learn to use violence, as some have claimed, or can it be a healthy, positive form of dicipline?"
"Spanking Web links" - additional links from
"A Study of Attitudes Towards Corporal Punishment as an Educational Procedure From the Earliest Times to the Present" - a thesis by Robert McCole Wilson that gives a good overview of the history of spanking.  "This thesis is an attempt to help clarify the issue of corporal punishment in schools by looking at the historical development of the attitudes which are currently held. The views on corporal punishment of influential educational thinkers from the earliest times to the present have been presented and analysed. Also the degree to which these views were a reflection of, or contrast to, the attitudes of the time has been noted."
"Social Change and Trends in Approval of Corporal Punishment by Parents from 1968 to 1994" by Murray A. Straus and Anita K. Mathur, Family Research Laboratory, University of New Hampshire. "In 1968 there was almost complete consensus concerning the cultural norm which permitted and expected parents to use corporal punishment. At that time 94% of the U.S. adult population approved of spanking a child. We tested the hypothesis that approval of corporal punishment declined since then. The a decrease to 68% in 1994."
"The four styles of parenting" by Ron Huxley - an overview of the parenting styles "Rejecting/Neglecting", "Authoritarian", "Permissive", and "Democratic or Balanced". "In his book, Love & Limits: Achieving a Balance in Parenting, parenting expert Ron Huxley writes about the four styles of parenting. Each style corresponds to a balance of love and limits. Where do you fit in?"
If you need a parenting expert for a specific problem, try (currently, none of their experts claims expertise in spanking, but some mention 'discipline'):
Category: Parenting--Toddlers/Infants/Pre-Schoolers
Category: Parenting--Teens hosts a search engine specific for parenting websites. They have also listed this website (SpankWithLove) under Parenting/Issues/Discipline. (Adult Aid For Child Discipline) is a website "for those adults who simply cannot decide on the amount of punishment a child should receive". There are three types of punishment to choose from: restriction, spanking, and time out. The amount of punishment (e.g. number of spanks) will be chosen randomly within a given range, similar to "The Punishment Selector" above. They have a punishment contract: fill in the blanks and print the page. And they have kindly listed this website (SpankWithLove) under the headline "helpful links" - thanks a lot! 
"The National Center for the Study of Corporal Punishment and Alternatives - (NCSCPA)", Temple University, Philadelphia. "The NCSCPA is the only center of its kind in the world; it is unique as a center for research, scholarhip, clinical investigation, the advocacy concerning corporal punishment and more recently, psychological maltreatment in the schools."
You can find more related  links at: Google Web Directory, Home > Family > Parenting > Resources > Discipline.
The images on this website were largely taken from The Handprints Spanking Art & Stories Page. If this link is broken, try this one or this one. "The author of this web page strongly opposes all forms of child abuse and violence against children, including "spanking". The child discipline techniques depicted on this web site should never be used on real-life children." hosts information on spanking and discipline in RealAudio format. "Call the behavior, not the child, "bad" or "naughty"...Spanking: never more than once per day; only with an open hand; never on the face; never for a violent act; only between ages 2 & 5 years old."
"Resources on Corporal Punishment" - a list of scientific resources on this subject.
"A Good Whuppin'?" by DeNeen L. Brown, Washington Post (1998).
Definitions of Physical Child Abuse in the U.S.A., by State (PDF file). According to this paper, many states explicitly define skin bruises as signs of child abuse. One more reason to spank only with the hand and to refrain from using implements. More information on the legal definitions of child abuse can be found at "State Statutes", hosted by the National Clearinghouse on Child Abuse and Neglect Information.
"Child Abuse: Threat or Menace? How common is it really?" by Douglas J. Besharov with Jacob W. Dembosky (1996). "Having worked in the field for 30 years, I can testify firsthand that the problem of child abuse and neglect is real. But however well meant, exaggerating the severity of abuse endangers children...And to claim recklessly that too few cases are investigated is to play with fire. Child-protective agencies are already overwhelmed investigating about 2 million reports a year, two-thirds of which are dismissed as unfounded or inappropriate."
"Parental Attitudes and Beliefs Regarding Punishment as a Means of Child Discipline" by Ronald L. Pitzer, Extension Family Sociologist (1993). "Slapping, spanking, and paddling children for purposes of discipline are accepted, pervasive, adult behaviors in U.S. families...There is a normative expectation in American society that parents will use physical punishment with their children...80-90 percent of the population considers parents to have not just the right, but the moral obligation, to spank or slap."
"The Physical Punishment of Children in Scotland: A Consultation" - a paper by the Scottish Executive Justice Department, February 2000. "The law in Scotland recognises a parent’s right to administer moderate corporal punishment to his or her child... In deciding if any punishment is excessive courts look at all the circumstances of the case including the age, sex and any known disabilities or weaknesses of the child. Factors such as the nature and context of the punishment, the manner and method of its execution, its duration and its physical and mental effects are all to be taken into account. The force must be moderate, and not inspired by vindictiveness."
"The Open Directory: Home/Family/Parenting/Resources/Discipline" contains more links to related websites, including a link to this site.
"": A comprehensive website about child health and safety issues. It features a link to this site on its Discipline page. "Safer Child isn't going to tell you to spank or not spank... We do believe in strong and consistent discipline, but we don't feel the word necessarily means something physical. On this page, we'll provide you with alternative means to discipline a child, and information on what the experts and the law consider to be physical abuse. We'll give you links to organizations that discuss various methods of discipline and that have different points of view. And then we'll let you -- the parent -- decide for yourself."
"Spanking Pals" - a website by Janie Weber who is looking for penpals who get spanked at home (link broken). "I am a 14 year old girl that when I am mischievous, I will still be spanked at home. I love writing to pen pals, but when my pen pals find out I get bare bottom spankings from Mom and Dad, they will tell me things like "you're being abused", and "you should go to the police". Stupid things like that. Mom and Dad love me very much, and it's because they love me that they discipline me when I need it."
" The Five C's of Effective Discipline" - "CLARITY: Be clear when you set rights, rules and limits. CONSISTENCY: Be consistent in enforcing rules. COMMUNICATION: Talk about rights, rules and limits often. CARING: Use encouragement and support, not just discipline for broken rules. CREATE: Instill a sense of social responsibility in your children."
"Bring Back the Rod" - a Daily Mail & Guardian news article about requests for the reintroduction of school corporal punishment in South Africa.
"Family.Org Hot Topics: Principles of Discipline" - "Administering discipline is often frustrating and unpleasant--for parent and child alike. But in the life of a young person, there's no substitute for understanding boundaries and responsibilities as taught by a caring mother or father. It's vital that parental authority be demonstrated even in the early stages of a child's development, and equally important that all instruction is passed on with love and respect."
"Family.Org Hot Topics: Overview of Spanking" - "Spanking can be a valuable disciplinary tool--if it is administered appropriately. It is essential to always balance firmness with loving sensitivity. Indeed, spanking is not appropriate for every child or at every age, and is unnecessary in many situations. For example, willful disobedience or defiance of authority might warrant corporal punishment, while mere childish irresponsibility does not. When spankings are properly managed, there is no reason to fear they will produce harmful emotional or psychological effects in children." (Questions and Answers)
"News10 Close-Up: Spare the Rod?" - a news report featuring spanking pros and cons.
"Spare the rod? Studies of spanking inconclusive" - a HealthJournal news report. "Parents looking for the definitive word on spanking will not find it in scientific studies, which are sharply divided on the subject and often seriously flawed. Moral, religious, family and social factors are the strongest influences in parents' decision to spank or not."
"Spare the Rod?" - a good overview of the arguments for and against spanking by Maureen Tully. "I believe that the 'jury is still out' on the spanking issue, but that at the same time, has definitely returned and given a guilty verdict to the abusive use of any child for any reason, value or religious belief. As parents and counsellors, we need to distinguish between a mild spanking motivated from love for the purpose of teaching and correcting, and as a last resort, from issues of child abuse."
"Sparing the Rod: Black Attitudes on Spanking" - an news article by Aïda Croal. "According to Dr. Alvin Poussaint, professor of clinical psychiatry at Harvard Medical School, studies show that African Americans resort to corporal punishment 20-30% more than the general population."
"Foundations of Psychohistory" by Lloyd Demause, chapter 1 pages 45-50. "The evidence which I have collected on methods of disciplining children leads me to believe that a very large percentage of the children born prior to the eighteenth century were what would today be termed "battered children"... Beating instruments included whips of all kinds, including the cat-o'-nine-tails, shovels, canes, iron and wooden rods, bundles of sticks, the discipline (a whip made of small chains), and special school instruments like the flapper, which had a pear-shaped end and a round hole to raise blisters. Their comparative frequency of use may be indicated by the categories of the German schoolmaster who reckoned he had given 911,527 strokes with the stick, 124,000 lashes with the whip, 136,715 slaps with the hand, and 1,115,800 boxes on the ear... The beatings described in the sources were generally severe, involved bruising and bloodying of the body, began early, and were a regular part of the child's life."
"Discipline: to spank or not to spank?" - an article from a home education website. "I don't believe a child should ever be spanked (or 'disciplined' in any other way) simply for being a child, which often includes forgetfulness. I don't believe he should ever be spanked with anything other than a hand, as it might cause damage. I don't believe he should be spanked for school problems, which usually occur because of boredom, or being bullied, and I absolutely don't believe that older children or teens should ever be spanked. The more we respect our children, the more they will respect us. Some children's personalities mean that spanking is never a good idea for them. BUT... I do see that there is a case for infrequent spanking for some children, from toddlerhood until they are about five. There is not just a fine line but a huge gap between occasional, controlled spanking for pre-defined reasons, and violent abuse. To ban all spanking in the hope of stopping abusive beating is as pointless as banning all alcohol in the hope of stopping drunkenness. It merely pushes the problem underground, and makes good parents feel that they have done wrong."
"Restorative Justice in Everyday Life: Beyond the Formal Ritual" - a paper by Ted Wachtel, President of the International Institute for Resorative Pracices, presented in 1999. "Punishment in response to crime and other wrongdoing is the prevailing practice, not just in criminal justice systems but throughout most modern societies. Punishment is usually seen as the most appropriate response to crime and to wrongdoing in schools, families and workplaces. Those who fail to punish naughty children and offending youths and adults are often labelled as 'permissive.' This punitive-permissive continuum reflects the current popular view, but offers a very confined perspective and limited choice: to punish or not to punish. The only other variable is the severity of the punishment, such as the amount of the fine or the length of the sentence. However, we can construct a more useful view of social control by looking at the interplay of two more comprehensive variables, control and support... Now we can combine a high or low level of control with a high or low level of support to identify four general approaches to social control: neglectful, permissive, punitive (or retributive) and restorative."
"UC Berkeley study finds no lasting harm among adolescents from moderate spanking earlier in childhood" and "Moderate spanking leaves no lasting mark, study says" - two articles about a long-term study published in 2001 by Diana Baumrind and Elizabeth Owens, research psychologists at Berkeley’s Institute of Human Development (University of California). "Owens and Baumrind analyzed data gathered from 100 middle-class white families from 1968 to 1980. The children and parents were interviewed, tested and observed on three occasions by two teams of psychologists when the children were 4, 9 and 14. (...) The study separates out parents who use spanking frequently and severely - resulting in evidence of harm - and focuses on those families who occasionally spank their children, a practice that Baumrind calls normal for the population sampled. (...) The study found the majority of families disciplined their preschool children by using mild to moderate spanking. The results showed no negative effects on cognitive, social or behavioral skills of those youngsters and found no difference between them and the 4 percent of children who were not physically disciplined. The study found that 4 percent to 7 percent of parents fell into the "red zone" by disciplining their children frequently and impulsively, by such means as verbal punishment, using a paddle, hitting their children in the face or torso or throwing and shaking them. Those children were found to be not as adjusted socially and more likely to have behavioral problems or experience anxiety or depression, Owens said. (...) "When we removed this 'red zone' group of parents," said Baumrind, "we were left with very few small but significant correlations between normative physical punishment and later misbehavior among the children at age 8 to 9. (...) She said the few links that remained were explained by the child's prior misbehavior. In other words, when researchers controlled for the tendency of the child to be uncooperative or defiant as preschoolers, all correlations between spanking and harmful effects were close to zero."
"Responsive Discipline: Effective Tools for Parents" - a free online personal study course by Dr. Charles A. Smith, published at the Kansas State University Cooperative Extension Service. "Reward and punishment are not necessarily wrong. Using consequences is an important part of guidance and discipline. The problem occurs when they are overused. Children who are raised primarily through external rewards and punishments will avoid misbehavior out of a fear of being caught and punished. (...) These children behave if the parent is nearby, ever watchful of how the parent will react to what they do. When the parent is absent, however, these children may misbehave. (...) Although we know chronic or severe physical punishment can have dramatic negative consequences for children, not all physical punishment is child abuse. Infrequent, mild physical punishment by parents may appear to be effective in stopping misbehavior in some young children. Although there continues to be some debate among professionals about the merits of its use, I am not familiar with any research showing that infrequent, mild physical punishment has clear long-term negative consequences for children. The use of this discipline choice will be further moderated by a relationship in which the child feels deeply loved and supported by the parent. (...) Although it may seem to work, spanking is not recommended as one of the discipline tools."
"Guidance for Effective Discipline" - a publication by the American Academy of Pediatrics. "Spanking, as discussed here, refers to striking a child with an open hand on the buttocks or extremities with the intention of modifying behavior without causing physical injury. Other forms of physical punishment, such as striking a child with an object, striking a child on parts of the body other than the buttocks or extremities, striking a child with such intensity that marks lasting more than a few minutes occur, pulling a child’s hair, jerking a child by the arm, shaking a child, and physical punishment delivered in anger with intent to cause pain, are unacceptable and may be dangerous to the health and well-being of the child. These types of physical punishment should never be used. Despite its common acceptance, and even advocacy for its use, spanking is a less effective strategy than time-out or removal of privileges for reducing undesired behavior in children. Although spanking may immediately reduce or stop an undesired behavior, its effectiveness decreases with subsequent use. The only way to maintain the initial effect of spanking is to systematically increase the intensity with which it is delivered, which can quickly escalate into abuse. Thus, at best, spanking is only effective when used in selective infrequent situations."
"Convention on the Rights of the Child" adopted by the General Assembly of the United Nations on 20 November 1989. "Article 19, 1. States Parties shall take all appropriate legislative, administrative, social and educational measures to protect the child from all forms of physical or mental violence, injury or abuse, neglect or negligent treatment, maltreatment or exploitation, including sexual abuse, while in the care of parent(s), legal guardian(s) or any other person who has the care of the child. (...) Article 29, 1. States Parties agree that the education of the child shall be directed to: (a) The development of the child's personality, talents and mental and physical abilities to their fullest potential; (b) The development of respect for human rights and fundamental freedoms, and for the principles enshrined in the Charter of the United Nations; (c) The development of respect for the child's parents, his or her own cultural identity, language and values, for the national values of the country in which the child is living, the country from which he or she may originate, and for civilizations different from his or her own; (d) The preparation of the child for responsible life in a free society, in the spirit of understanding, peace, tolerance, equality of sexes, and friendship among all peoples, ethnic, national and religious groups and persons of indigenous origin; (e) The development of respect for the natural environment. (...) Article 37 States Parties shall ensure that: (a) No child shall be subjected to torture or other cruel, inhuman or degrading treatment or punishment."
"The Childhelp USA® National Child Abuse Hotline" - a hotline for calls from the United States, Canada, U.S. Virgin Islands, Guam and Puerto Rico: 1-800-4-A-CHILD® (1-800-422-4453) "The Childhelp USA® National Child Abuse Hotline operates 24 hours a day, seven days a week (...) The hotline offers crisis intervention, information, literature and referrals. State-of-the-art technology provides translators in approximately 140 languages. The Childhelp USA® National Child Abuse Hotline, 1-800-4-A-CHILD®, provides confidential, toll-free assistance to: * Children who are being abused and want help * Frustrated parents who are about to lose control and are seeking help * Adults and children requesting the local telephone number to report cases of abuse * Adult survivors of child abuse who are feeling unsafe or suicidal * Adults requesting parenting tips, definitions of child abuse, or names of recommended books regarding parenting, child development or adult survivor issues"
"Bad parenting 'causes child crime'" - a BBC News article. "'Feckless' and abusive parents are to be blamed by the government for youth crime and unruly behaviour in schools, it has been reported. Education Secretary Estelle Morris (...) will say she wants to 'put teachers back on the pedestal' to give children better discipline and lead them away from violence. She will tell the conference in Cardiff: 'How can we expect pupils to respect teachers if their parents don't? Parents must set the right example, and most do. But there is a hard-core of feckless parents who have a corrosive effect on the rest. There is a cycle of disrespect starting in school and lasting throughout these children's lives.'"
"Judge rules spanking of girl, 14, by man OK" - a news article by Sheila McLaughlin, The Cincinnati Enquirer. "A judge on Thursday acquitted a middle-aged psychologist of an assault charge for pulling down a 14-year-old girl's pants and spanking her hard enough to cause bruises. (...) He was upset because the girl was picked up by police the night before on drug and curfew violations when she was supposed to be spending the night at his house after attending a football game with his daughter. (...) "I spanked her hard enough so she could feel it ... so it would sting, so she wouldn't be able to sit down, so she would remember it." (...) The girl's grandmother said she did not give the man permission to strike the child, although she had discussed her granddaughter's discipline problems with him."
"1024, Inc. Develops Safe Alternative Discipline Device for Children" - an article about a company that sells "the first safe and effective alternative discipline device for children", B-Stik(TM). "Designed to allow a parent or caregiver to physically discipline a child without causing harm or injury, B-Stik is a hand-held pliant baton that will sting upon contact but leave the child free of welts, bruises or blunt trauma. Steven Robyor, who developed B-Stik, hopes the product will eliminate cases of serious injury and abuse resulting from inappropriate discipline." See their website: (link broken)
new (Dec) - Links to pro-spanking and anti-spanking websites.

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Last update: Dec-13-2004